), are an important food meat in Europe, South and North America, and certain parts of the Middle East. Nonetheless, the industry was badly affected by myxomatosis in the 1950s and 1960s, whereas the spread of rabbit calicivirus, which originated in China, had a detrimental effect in the 1990s. By far the most-used strain is the New Zealand white rabbit, but other strains such as the Himalayan and the pigmented Dutch-Belted rabbit are also used [37]. The New Zealand White and Californian are the leading commercial breeds, with a high proportion of muscle for their size. La gestazione ha una durata media di quaranta giorni, ed è generalmente più lunga nelle lepri rispetto ai conigli: in compenso, i cuccioli di lepre nascono già ricoperti di pelo e con gli occhi aperti, mentre i piccoli di coniglio nascono nudi e ciechi e devono passare il primo periodo di vita al sicuro nella propria tana. Under intensive conditions, a 42 day reproductive rhythm (remating 11 days after parturition) is practiced. In most commercial rabbitries, the animals are housed in flat-decked or stepped wire cages, with the provision of nesting boxes for kindling and for the protection of the young rabbits. ... (Scientific Name) Nature of commodity Approval number of establishments Number of packages Net weight Abattoir Manufacturing plant Cold store. The Leporidae are a family of mammals that include rabbits and hares, over 60 species in all.The Latin word Leporidae means "those that resemble lepus" (hare).Together with the pikas, the Leporidae constitute the mammalian order Lagomorpha.Leporidae differ from pikas in that they have short, furry tails and elongated ears and hind legs. When testing humanized biopharmaceuticals, the dosing period in developmental toxicity studies using rabbits is much shorter than for NHPs because of a shorter gestation period, allowing less time for an immune response to develop. Although fossil records demonstrate that many more species existed in the past (Lopez-Martinez, 2008), currently ∼90 species are known. Assieme ai pica, formano le uniche due famiglie di lagomorfi ancora viventi . Leporidae (In use by NZOR) Taxon Concept. The animals of the family Leporidae are called Leporids. Found in both the New World and Old World, rabbits naturally occur on all continents except Australia, where they have been introduced, as they have been to many larger islands around the world. The genome of the rabbit has not been completely sequenced yet (Rabbit Genome Project; [48]), but available data provide a wealth of sequence information for comparative genetics. All domestic rabbit breeds belong to the subspecies O. c. cuniculus (Carneiro et al., 2011) and several studies reported significantly lower genetic diversity when French wild O. c. cuniculus populations were compared to the Iberian populations (van der Loo et al., 1999; Queney et al., 2001; Esteves et al., 2004; Ferrand and Branco, 2007; Surridge et al., 2008; Carneiro et al., 2011; Abrantes et al., 2013a; Carneiro et al., 2014b). ; Hiller, N.; McDowall, R.M. ; Fordyce, R.E. Today, rabbits are bred by professional breeders as well as on a private basis for their meat and fur. Comparisons of genomes of six domestic breeds and wild rabbits from France and elsewhere have provided information about numerous subtle genetic shifts that occurred in the course of domestication (Carneiro et al., 2014b; summarized in Lohmueller, 2014). Lepus Linnaeus, 1758 Hares Jänikset — 7 spp. It is also of interest to note that species from other, related coccidian genera (e.g., Isospora, Caryospora, Cyclospora) have never been observed in Lepus species despite the many surveys that have been done on the members of this host genus. The only lagomorph commonly used in research is the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus. ; Hitchmough, R.A.; Keyes, I.W. ©2004-2019 Universal Taxonomic Services. Lifespan of domesticated Oryctolagus rabbits is approximately 7–8 years. The mammalian order Lagomorpha consists of two living families: Leporidae (rabbits and hares) and Ochotonidae (pikas) (Fig. Based on fossil evidence, Hibbard (1963) proposed that Lepus first arose in North America, implying that hares radiated to other continents. In addition, rabbits and hares are hunted for game. FIGURE 4.1. Rabbit production is particularly well developed in China, where approximately 700 000 tons is produced per annum. Laboratory rabbits are also commonly used for the testing of implanted materials [46] and for the production of polyclonal antibodies [47]. Scientific Name & Classification. Create your website today. The order Lagomorpha consists of two families, Leporidae and Ochotonidae. In addition, the wool and skin/fur of rabbits is of commercial importance. Pikas, Rabbits, and Hares of the World. La famiglia dei Leporidi comprende una sessantina di specie viventi, racchiuse in undici generi: la maggior parte di questi comprende un paio di specie viventi, mentre i due generi maggiori (Lepus e Sylvilagus) da soli contano i tre quarti di specie totali ascritte alla famiglia. These two subspecies diverged ∼1.8 Mya (Carneiro et al., 2009, 2014a). ; Baker, A.N. Rabbits can also be used for juvenile toxicity studies and as in vivo models in local (skin) and ocular tolerance testing. The family Leporidae splits broadly into two groups: the hares of the genus Lepus, containing 32 species, and the rabbits in the remaining 10 genera, which include Oryctolagus (Fig. The European rabbit is a key species in the Mediterranean ecosystem being the main prey of eagles and the endangered Iberian lynx (Delibes-Mateos et al., 2007). Stocks of lower productivity are improved by crossing with intensive breeds. The main uses of rabbits as the nonrodent species in nonclinical R&D are reproductive toxicity [36] and pyrogen testing. In fact, pikas have disappeared from over one-third of their previously known habitat in the United States and populations are decreasing globally. On small farms, natural mating is favored, whereas artificial insemination is commonly employed on large farms. Leporidae Genus. Both of the breeds most often used in research, the albino New Zealand White and the pigmented Dutch Belted rabbit, may be purchased free of specific pathogenic organisms. All species of hares belong to a single genus, Lepus, while the rabbit group includes 10 genera (Brachylagus, Bunolagus, Caprolagus, Nesolagus, Oryctolagus, Pentalagus, Poelagus, Pronolagus, Romerolagus, and Sylvilagus). When rabbits first became available for sale to the public, many rabbit farms started to increase in size to accommodate the demand for the meat. In some regions where domesticated European rabbits escaped and developed as feral populations, they have become pests that have severely disrupted native ecosystems (Fenner, 2010; Gibb and Williams, 1994). ; Bell, B.D. For backyard rabbit husbandry or home meat production, breed choice is not of critical importance. 12-1). The placement of Old World taxa at the base of, and within the arctic clade, suggested to them that some hares invaded North America secondarily, perhaps via the Beringian Asian-American land connection. Under extensive conditions, the 18 or 25 day mating interval with 35–42 day weaning is more suitable. Laura Klappenbach. The Ochotonidae are the pikas. A lack of morphological variation between species has resulted in numerous taxonomic revisions throughout the last two centuries (Flux, 1983; Halanych et al., 1999). ; McPhee, R.P. Per ricavare la massima quantità possibile di energia dal loro cibo, che notoriamente ne è povero (le fibre vegetali non sono digeribili dall'organismo e passano indenni attraverso il tubo digerente), questi animali hanno sviluppato una forma di digestione simile a quella dei ruminanti come meccanismo: dopo aver ingerito il cibo, essi lo espellono sotto forma di feci verdastre (le cosiddette feci molli), che vengono reingerite e digerite nuovamente, rendendo possibile una scissione della cellulosa in zuccheri semplici, più facili da eliminare, ed eliminando gli scarti in forma di feci di colore scuro (feci dure). Leporidae Fischer, 1817. There are about 54 species in this order. Assieme ai pica, formano le uniche due famiglie di lagomorfi ancora viventi[1]. Oryctolagus cuniculus includes the European rabbit species and its descendants, the world's 305 breeds of domestic rabbit. Donald W. Duszynski, Lee Couch, in The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Rabbits of the World, 2013, The mammalian order Lagomorpha contains two extant families, Ochotonidae (Chapter 3) and Leporidae. Lepre appenninicaLepus corsicanus Diffusa in Italia, Lepre europeaLepus europaeus Diffusa in Italia, Lepre sardaLepus capensis mediterraneus Diffusa in Italia, Lepre variabileLepus timidus Diffusa in Italia, Coniglio selvaticoOryctolagus cuniculusDiffusa in Italia, Silvilago (Minilepre)Sylvilagus floridanus Diffusa in Italia, Mammal Species of the World. They are now present in the wild and or via anthropogenic dispersal in Continental Europe, England, Australia, New Zealand, parts of North and South America, and North Africa. The European wild rabbit or its derivatives have been introduced to most of Oceana. The rabbit is widely used in teratogenicity testing. Synthetic rabbit breeds may have 10–12 teats and cross-fostering is common in large breeding units. TABLE 5.1. The meat is highly palatable, high in protein and low in calories, fat, and cholesterol. European rabbits are bred for meat, fur, and use in basic and applied research and by rabbit fanciers throughout most of the world. Only E. stiedai is known to parasitize Lepus species for certain. In contrast, L. americanus, which ranges across the high latitudes of the continental USA, Canada, and Alaska, is more closely related to taxa from the southwestern USA and Mexico (L. alleni, L. californicus, L. callotis) than to the arctic clade. Scientific Classification. Once you've registered, you can add an observation to the website and suggest an identification yourself or see if anyone else can identify it for you. Adult size in various breeds of rabbits ranges from 1 kg to nearly 7 kg. Sono animali assai adattabili e colonizzano praticamente qualsiasi tipo di habitat, dalla foresta pluviale al deserto, dalle paludi all'alta montagna. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123847195000897, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123847317000295, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128053065000195, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444814449500067, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123742797120168, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781416066217000129, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123978998000044, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123978998000056, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124171442000172, Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), MEAT, ANIMAL, POULTRY AND FISH PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT | Exotic and other Species, Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences (Second Edition), Rabbits comprise eight genera in the family, Martha A. Delaney, ... Jamie L. Rothenburger, in, Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences, Rabbits and hares are members of the family, Development and Phylogeny of the Immune System. Scientific names Finnish names English names; All: Ochotonidae Leporidae: Jänikset: Rabbits and Hares Leporidae: Jänikset: Photo : Rabbits and Hares: Goto: Leporidae Jänikset Rabbits and Hares. Rabbits may be held manually or placed in a restraint device. ... (Scientific Name) Nature of commodity Approval number of establishments Number of packages Net weight Abattoir Manufacturing plant Cold store. The thalidomide catastrophe played a key role in establishing national and international guidelines calling for a second, nonrodent species to be used (in addition to a rodent, generally the rat). injections are commonly made using the readily accessible vessels of the ear. However, no information was included about other species of lagomorphs. The gestation period of rabbits is 30–32 days. Pikas, which are smaller than rabbits (approximately 200 g), closely resemble small caviomorph rodents and are most commonly found on rocky outcrops and talus slopes. The 11 genera and 54 species in Leporidae include hares (syn. jackrabbits) and rabbits, of which there are over 100 domestic breeds derived from the European wild rabbit. Georg Schmitt, ... Markus Stephan-Gueldner, in The Nonhuman Primate in Nonclinical Drug Development and Safety Assessment, 2015. The blacktail jackrabbit, Lepus californicus Gray, 1837. recent molecular analysis (mitochondrial cytochrome b) of 11 North American Lepus species by Halanych et al. Rose G. Mage, ... Pedro J. Esteves, in Encyclopedia of Immunobiology, 2016, The order Lagomorpha is composed of two families: Leporidae and Ochotonidae. The adult was a coney (from Anglo-Norman conis, plural of conil from Latin cunicula) until the eighteenth century and the name can be found in the King James Bible (Leviticus 11:5; Proverbs 30:26). A better nutritional status of both fetuses and suckling kits has a positive effect on their later productivity. Rabbit breeding & showing SIM game. Leporids are over 60 species of rabbits and hares which form the family Leporidae.The leporids, together with the pikas, constitute the mammalian order Lagomorpha.Leporids differ from pikas in having short furry tails, and elongated ears and hind legs. Rabbits are herbivores, with hypsodont molars, and, like rodents, ever-growing incisors are used to clip vegetation. Hares are usually larger than rabbits. Pikas are found in North America along the northwest coast and across the central Asian steppe into Russia. Sylvilagus includes 13 wild rabbit … Synthetic rabbit breeds originated from the crossing of two or more intensive breeds to introduce higher reproductive and productive characteristics, greater adaptability to different environmental conditions or traits preferred by certain groups of consumers. Only 10 of 32 (31%) species in this genus have been examined for coccidia, and combined, they have been reported to harbor 43 Eimeria species (Table 5.1); however, nine of 43 (21%) were described originally from the domestic rabbit, Orcytolagus cuniculus (E. exigua, E. intestinalis, E. irresidua, E. magna, E. matsubayashii, E. media, E. perforans, E. piriformis, E. stiedai) and four of 43 (9%) were originally described from cottontail rabbits, Sylvilagus spp. This page was last edited on 17 January 2020, at 23:21. Hares and rabbits are indigenous to all continents except for Australia and Antarctica. I Leporidi (dal latino lepus, lepre) sono una famiglia di mammiferi Lagomorfi, comprendente circa 50 specie. Rabbits and hares have soft fur, long ears, short tails, and powerful rear legs that they use to hop and jump. Both the European rabbit and the eastern cottontail (S. floridanus) are unique because of their great diversity of habitat: fields, farms, woodlands, deserts, swamps, and forests. The rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was originally classified as a rodent species, and only later was given its own family, Leporidae, in the taxonomic order of the … c009f123-014c-4485-9f40-27c7249b37c8. Figure 1 shows phylogenetic relationships of the Leporids. Leporidae. Rabbits have been domesticated for centuries. Archive 2006-05-01 Rabbits are unable to vomit because of the restriction to striated muscle in the esophagus and stomach. Username or Email: ; Account Password: ; Stay logged in: The family Leporidae, consisting primarily of rabbits and hares, ... all lagomorphs were classified as a family within the order Rodentia, under the name Duplicendentata. Figure 1. Alternatives to the Use of Nonhuman Primates in Regulatory Toxicology, Georg Schmitt, ... Markus Stephan-Gueldner, in, The Nonhuman Primate in Nonclinical Drug Development and Safety Assessment. Raise your own virtual rabbits, buy and sale from other players, and compete for awards. For practical and economic reasons the rabbit is generally chosen as the nonrodent species for teratogenicity testing (whereas the dog, minipig, or NHP are commonly used in general toxicity studies). website builder. To learn more about lagomorphs by whole genome sequencing (see Web link to World Lagomorph Society and information about the Lagomorph Genomics Consortium (LaGomiCs) whose “final objective is the sequencing of the genome of all extant and select extinct lagomorph species”). The English word rabbit (from Middle English rabbet, from Middle French dialect rabbotte, from Walloon robète [baby rabbit], diminutive of Middle Dutch robbe) arose in the fourteenth century to mean the young of the species. Rabbits are generally quite docile, but may inflict serious bites or scratches if frightened. (1999), only two previous studies have used molecular or biochemical analyses to address the evolution and historical biogeography of Lepus; Pérez-Suárez et al. Does with 10 teats kindle higher numbers of kits (5–10% more) than does with 8 teats. Joshua R. Ginsberg, in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), 2013. The Angora is the primary rabbit breed for wool production, whereas the Rex and Satin breeds have been raised for their pelts for the fur market. The cranial or caudal thigh muscles and the lumbar epaxial musculature are useful sites for i.m. (1999) to argue that isolation mechanisms (e.g., geographic, behavioral, or ecological) may be driving speciation within Lepus and that the known lack of chromosomal diversity within Lepus points to mechanisms of speciation that do not invoke the chromosomal models suggested for other mammals (Halanych et al., 1999). Despite this, the evolution of hares and jackrabbits has been poorly studied. In contrast to most other species in Lagomorpha, rabbits are burrowing animals. Interestingly, of the 13 genera in the Lagomorpha, eight are monotypic, while Lepus, with 32 species, is the most speciose and has worldwide distribution (Wilson and Reeder, 2005). The currently known Ochotonidae all belong to the single genus Ochotona (Pikas), with at least 30 species. Body size varies over a relatively narrow range (300 g to 5 kg), and body form is consistent: round heads, large eyes, big ears, and extended, ricochetal hind legs, which converge on those of macropod marsupials. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2 spp. Leporidae - Species Browser - Global : iSpot Nature - Your place to share nature. Oryctolagus. 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