This comprehensive planning bore fruit on 15 September, when the allied amphibious task force launched its initial assault from the sea. The term is also used for an agency that gathers such information. The old problems of the validity of the information received remains, now coupled with the huge volume of data that can be received. It demonstrated how strategic intelligence can be used in conjunction with operational intelligence to provide senior decisionmakers information necessary to make well-informed national security decisions and to give leaders opportunities to mitigate the numerical superiority of an adversary. What seemed a victory for the Federals rapidly deteriorated into a disorganized retreat. The amphibious assault was designed to sever Choe’s lines of communication and retreat and would be coupled with a break-out from the Pusan perimeter. With a full understanding of what he faced, MacArthur told the Joint Chiefs of Staff that he could conduct a successful amphibious operation. In-Person: Outside the U.S., go to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and inform a U.S. Jacqueline E. Whitt is Professor of Strategy at the U.S. Army War College and the WAR ROOM Podcast Editor. “Intelligence reduces the unknowns that planners must face and forms the basis for both deliberate and crisis action planning,” the Naval Doctrinal Publication points out. and (2) What forces could the enemy bring to bear when it began? 2015-10-12T20:11:14-04:00 https: ... Admiral William McRaven (Retired) talked about what makes up and the importance of good intelligence. But credit for Israel’s success cannot be explained by its intelligence alone; indicators and warning should have prepared the Egyptians for what was to come. Force and its employment are significant in driving outcomes in combat. On 10 July the network demonstrated its worth, as Rose Greenhow sent word that “McDowell has certainly been ordered to advance on the sixteenth.”[6] This intelligence, however, proved insufficient to start the race. daily. It did not seize the initiative, however, choosing instead to wait until the Second Army could move north to catch the Germans in a pincer. Website created by, https://media.blubrry.com/usawc_warcast/p/warroom.armywarcollege.edu/wp-content/uploads/18-058-02-Lester-Whitt-Intel-no-1.mp3, IMPACT (OR NOT) OF INTEL ON STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING, NEEDLES IN HAYSTACKS: ANALYZING TODAY’S FLOOD OF INFORMATION, WHERE DOES INTELLIGENCE GO FROM HERE? Discover the CIA history, mission, vision and values. 4. The first three examples illustrate how intelligence can help lead to victory through clandestine intelligence operations designed to provide indications and warning information of impending attacks or operations. While the German Eighth Army was comparable in size to each of the Russian armies, it could not face a combined assault. The result was a windfall of intelligence for the Germans. Answering this question is the purpose behind this exciting six-part podcast series on Intelligence. Please know, CIA does not engage in law enforcement. On 25 June 1950 four columns of North Korean infantry and tanks under the command of Marshal Choe Yong Gun surprised the world by driving south and pushing South Korean and contingents of US forces to the southeast corner of the Korean peninsula. [42]Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military Operations (JP 2-01), (Washing­ton, DC: Department of Defense, Novem­ber 2003), V-14. [18] In the ensuing battle, US intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance allowed for the coup de main on 4 June when dive-bomber squadrons from the carriers caught the Japanese completely by surprise, sinking the carriers Akagi, Kaga, and Hiryu. Future of Defence: Big Data And Military Intelligence. Please check our site map, search feature, or our site navigation on the left While the Union Army was concentrated, Confederate forces were split, with 21,000 stationed at Manassas Junction under Beauregard, and 12,800 under General Joseph E. Johnston near Harper’s Ferry. During the course of the morning, the Israelis struck 18 of Egypt’s Air Force bases, cratering runways, blowing up aircraft, and destroying support facilities. Consequently, orders were dispatched that night directing Johnston to move south in haste and unite with Beauregard’s forces on the Bull Run. The role of intelligence in determining outcomes of battles and wars has varied dramatically across conflicts and time, contributing to wide differences in judgments about the importance of intelligence in war. (EISENHOWER SERIES), SOCIAL MEDIA: GOOD MEDICINE OR A BAD PILL (EISENHOWER SERIES), INCLUSIVITY, DIVERSITY AND THE MILITARY AS A LEADER OF CHANGE (EISENHOWER SERIES), THAT NEVER HAPPENED: A WATER COOLER DISCUSSION ABOUT MOVIES. In addition to the lost four carriers, three Japanese battleships were damaged, two heavy cruisers sunk and three more damaged, and several destroyers and auxiliary ships were sunk. Since World War I, the Navy had placed a good deal of effort into developing a strong communications intelligence capability. This revelation was passed to the United States, which placed sufficient pressure on the Soviet Union and Egypt to force a cancellation of the attack. This information immediately made its way to Richmond. [33], From this information, Israeli intelligence developed a precise targeting package. the information via one of the above methods. We will work to protect all information you [16] The precise location of attack, however, was more difficult to surmise because the codes for Japanese geographic designators remained unknown. Learn how the CIA is organized into directorates and key offices, responsible for securing our nation. In both peacetime and wartime, military intelligence is an important part of the security system for a nation. [41] History abounds with such examples. Aerial photographs and reports from former inhabitants were used in shaping the operational plans for the amphibious task force commander, RADM James Doyle and his staff. With the two corps from Gumbinnen and Francois’ corps to the south, the German forces swept around the Second Army and on 29 August completed the encirclement that would spell its demise. Battle is a physical activity and requires force. In considering the options, Yamamoto believed that the United States, whose naval order of battle in the Pacific after the Pearl Harbor strike was significantly less than that of Japan, would not risk a major fleet engagement for anything other than defense of a vital target. However, it is operational and tactical intelligence, not necessarily numbers, technology, or tactics, that can have the most decisive impact on how forces are employed and how success is achieved in wartime operations. [4], The battle may be most renowned for the last minute heroics of General “Stonewall” Jackson on Henry House Hill, which led to the rout of the Union army, but the Confederates were able to employ the forces needed to win at Bull Run because they had created, months earlier, an intricate spy network in Washington, DC. In May 1861, just weeks after the announcement of the fall of Fort Sumter, a spy in the quartermaster office of the US War Department had begun recruiting a ring of Confederate sympathizers in the nation’s capital. Soon after that message was sent, a Japanese message was intercepted noting that “AF is short of water.” OP-20-G was able to report to Admiral Nimitz that the objective was, indeed, Midway. First, with reliable information on the Union order of battle and strategy, they were able to split their smaller forces to defend the Shenandoah Valley and to maintain a check on McDowell’s army. This conclusion misses the point. Israel chose to attack first. A preemptive strike against the Arabs had always been a major part of the Israeli concept of operations, but it was their military intelligence, under the command of the bright and aggressive Aharon Yariv, that proved decisive. Recruiting will contact applicants within 45 days if their qualifications meet our needs. Combined, the Confederate troops still numbered fewer than the Federals, and divided, they stood little chance against a concerted Union offensive. The use of intelligence in war In the following context, intelligence is generally defined as information prepared for the use of policy makers. Therefore, just as Keegan correctly states that “Knowledge of what the enemy can do and of what he intends is never enough to ensure security,” so too, having superior forces equipped with better technology is no insurance for victory when opposing an enemy that invests in intelligence. [31]Oren B. Michael, “Did Israel Want the Six-Day War?” Azure (Spring, 1999). Thirteen more were under construction. [38]Edwin T. Layton, And I Was There: Pearl Harbor and Midway—Breaking the Secrets (New York: Random House, 1987), 315. [11]R. Earnest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military His­tory from 3500 B.C to the Present, Fourth Edition (New York: Harper Collins, 1993), 1255–56. Several notable works, such as Stephen Biddle’s Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle, have addressed such controversial force employment questions as: What weight should be given to employment vice that of technology or mass? If you know of an imminent threat to a location inside the U.S., immediately contact Nor could Israel count on technological superiority to overcome the odds. U.S. Army troops pushed out from the Inchon beachhead and on the 27th linked up with their comrades advancing north from the Pusan perimeter. It is important to remember that intelligence lessons learned in the Cold War can be and should be used in other areas where the risk for conflict is high. Deploying three carriers north of Midway to lie in wait, Nimitz had nearly evened the odds. Deployed on the 26th of August, he and his team silenced opposition on most of the islands by 8 September and began a thorough reconnaissance of approaches and Inchon itself. After losing at Tannenberg, the Russian army could not muster enough offensive strength to re-enter Germany again until World War II. Among these were bankers, clerks, couriers, housewives, and Rose Greenhow, proprietor of a respectable salon frequented by senior government and military officials. Following the victory at Pearl Harbor, Japanese strategists had different conceptions about how to proceed in the war in the Pacific. The Russian First Army struck first and won a victory at the Battle of Gumbinnen on 20 August 1914. Inchon, however, was not ideal. 383-4) while others suggest that operations and maintenance of the US intelligence services is nothing more than a highly successful confidence trick (Gill & … Intelligence at Tannenberg did not win the battle, but it did play a decisive role in dictating the way the Germans employed their units against a force that was, overall, larger than theirs. To gather intelligence on the enemy, he initially relied upon subordinates to scout and report back with information, but inaccurate reports led to early defeats (Daigler, 2014). [19] Theodore F. Cook, Jr., “Our Midway Disaster,” in Cowey, 318–19. DoD Readers and Listeners: please use a non-DoD email to subscribe. Thus, a McDowell move toward Manassas would spark a race in which Johnston would have to rush to Beauregrad’s aid across piedmont terrain and with limited railroad access. This gave Helmuth von Moltke, the German Chief of Staff in Berlin, time to replace the commander of the Eighth Army, General Maximilian von Prittwitz, with Generals Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, and to regroup. Such intelligence can be a force multiplier. The 45-mile-long approach from the open ocean to the landing area would be complicated by tides— which caused the water’s depth in the landing area to recede to dangerously low depths—and the proximity of several small islands occupied by North Korean forces. [4]Thomas A. Brooks, RADM (USN, Ret. Careers in this Field involve planning and performing government functions at the local, state and federal levels, including governance, national security, foreign service, planning, revenue and … Please note we have no control over the security and reliability of postal mail. Events began spinning into war in November 1966, with the signing of an Egyptian and Syrian alliance, and led to an Egyptian threat to use force on 18 May 1967. By destroying Second Army with relatively little loss, Hindenburg and Ludendorff could turn north against the First Army and a newly formed army, the Tenth. Office of Public Affairs Action-oriented intelligence. Yet, just as Israeli intelligence in this case can be viewed as an example of how intelligence operations should be conducted, Egypt’s poor intelligence opened the door to its own defeat. Two days later, the Marines captured Seoul. As the bulk of the German Eighth Army advanced on the right flank of the Russian’s Second Army and the Russians’ plight became apparent, German cryptologists began intercepting pleas for assistance, as well as orders from General Zhilinski, overall commander of Russian forces, directing the First Army to move northwest, away from Second Army—a clear sign that the Russian leaders did not have a clear understanding of German dispositions or just how precarious Second Army’s situation was. Early in the days of radio communications, neither side was particularly astute in communications security, and both exposed their vulnerabilities over the airwaves. First, the United States was committed to a defensive war in the Pacific—they had to react to Japanese actions, and, second, since they were committed to defend the Hawaii-Australia line with inferior numbers and weapons, the only real chance for success was to concentrate their forces at the right place at the right time.[14]. Prepublication Classification Review Board, Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room, news, press releases, information and more, Employment Egyptian artillery was superior, and their T-55 tanks were more capable than the majority of Israel’s tanks. Late in the afternoon, however, Johnston’s reinforcements, having arrived via rail at Manassas Junction the night before, made their way to the battle and broke the Union right flank. Such policy makers as generals and presidents take intelligence into account when making their decisions and acting upon them. Amit’s (head of the Mossad) achievement in secret diplomacy was built upon the international intelligence links which the Mossad had worked so hard to foster for years.”[35]. [15] The Japanese, like the Russians before Tannenberg, committed the egregious error of having to resend messages because command elements used outdated code books—US cryptologists had the benefit of capturing transmissions in both old and new codes, thereby providing multiple opportunities to mine transmissions for useful intelligence. Its OP-20-G Navy Radio Intelligence Section had over the years garnered a number of successes, including breaking many of the Japanese Navy’s codes. It was not enough to know Arab strategy on the grand scale; Yariv wanted to know everything about every Arab unit down to the menus served in the sergeants’ mess.[32]. Clark, a veteran of the OSS, recruited local fishermen and partisans for his team. [14]Henry F. Schorreck, Battle of Midway: The Role of COMINT at the Battle of Mid­way (SRH-230) (Washington, DC: Depart­ment of the Navy Historical Center, April 1999), 2. Can mass win in technology-heavy environments? McDowell began his march on the 16th, as Greenhow had reported, crossed the Bull Run at Sudley Ford on the 21st, and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. phone calls, e-mails or other forms of communication, from US citizens living outside of the Finally, Israel faced a hostile international community; the United States was an ally but eager to avoid any spark that could ignite a conflict with Egypt’s ally, the Soviet Union. Learn more about Career Opportunities at CIA. History repeatedly has demonstrated that numerically inferior forces, armed with less capable technologies, can win when leaders are armed with accurate intelligence they believe they can act upon. While winning a series of tactical successes, the North was unable to gain its strategic objective— command of all Korea—and was faced with the proposition of using all its remaining forces against the last allied forces holding the Pusan perimeter. As the single German corps under General Hermann von Francois began its attack against the exposed left flank of the Second Army on 27 August, two particularly important unencrypted communications transmitted by the Russian First and Second Armies were intercepted. To me, there are three implications of the importance of intelligence. By emphasizing intelligence, MacArthur conducted a masterful offensive and avoided an American Gallipoli. The relationship with the United States, in particular, served a critical role before the preemptive strike by making clear to both the CIA and Pentagon that war was inevitable and getting tacit buy-in on the plan. 09/29/10. Taken with Clark’s information, “intelligence helped Admiral Doyle select the best water approach, set the time for the amphibious assaults, and identify the North Korean Army line of communication as a critical vulnerability.”[25] Additionally, the intelligence estimates suggested that the North did not have forces enough in the area to offer significant resistance to the landing or to the recapture of Seoul.[26]. Misperceiving how quickly the Russians could bring their forces to bear, the Eighth quickly found itself facing two Russian armies—the First moving west into Prussia, and the Second driving northwest from southern Prussia. collection mission, there are many ways to reach us. of your passport, How you got the information you want to share with CIA, How to contact you, including your home address and phone number. Intelligence had paved the way for the Israeli Air Force to win one of the most lopsided victories in history. Success in the physical act of battle requires well-trained soldiers who are properly equipped, led by strong leadership willing to use force against a clear objective, employing it correctly, and sacrificing when necessary. We do not routinely respond to questions for which answers are found within this Web site. Intercepting Russian communications, German cryptologists deduced troop strengths and movement schedules, picked up orders, and, most importantly, messages between the First and Second Armies that showed how poorly the two were coordinating their efforts. to us and to those with more detail. Second, because of the existence of timely indicators and warning, it was inconceivable that the Federals could execute a surprise attack against the Confederates; agents were able to provide fresh, corroborated information on everything the Federals did. In What If?, Stephen Sears suggests that without a geographic point at which to regroup, the Confederate Army might have dissolved and the rebellion ended in its first year if the Union had won that day.[7]. [40] Absolute power does not win absolutely. provide, including your identity, and our interactions with you will be respectful and [7]Stephen Sears, “Battle of Bull Run, or the Rebellion of ‘61?” in Robert Cowley (ed. Israeli intelligence was, indeed, outstanding in the Six-Day War. Defeat seemed imminent. Intelligence analysis is the process of taking known information about situations and entities of strategic, operational, or tactical importance, characterizing the known, and, with appropriate statements of probability, the future actions in those situations and by those entities. Image Credit: Photo from the National Guard Command Center during response to Hurricane Irene (Department of Defense photo). “In his absence, the EAF was paralyzed. And if the US command had it, it could compensate for the disproportionately large force that Japan could bring to bear. Meanwhile, the United States was facing its own strategic dilemmas. It was nothing short of a complete victory for Germany, and it came in large part because of the German Army’s successful use of intelligence. Further, Israeli intelligence was able to verify that Egypt had plans for an attack, code named Asad, on Eliat and other targets in the Negev on the 27th. In this, Yamamoto was right. Required fields are marked *, The United States Army War College at Carlisle Barracks. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and senior military commanders 5. Another way is through the support intelligence gives to planning, when it provides information on the adversary’s capabilities and vulnerabilities—in today’s terminology “intelligence preparation of the battlespace.”. The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). In addition to the options below, individuals contact CIA in a variety of creative ways. Military intelligence is as old as warfare itself. The Importance Of Military Intelligence 1268 Words | 6 Pages. [12] Due in large part to the foresight provided by US naval intelligence, he failed. These defeats forced him to recognize the importance of accurate intelligence, though it took a while for his efforts to improve in this area. Meanwhile, he and his staff developed a concept of operations that would allow for concentration of force, and surprise, against a most vulnerable enemy point. Intelligence in this case gave the Confederates several advantages. History has proven that actionable intelligence can lead less capable forces to victory. Its outcome allowed the Germans to recover momentum after their loss at the Battle of the Marne on the Western Front, to save Prussia from the Russians, to defeat three successive Russian armies, and to deal the first of several blows leading to the Treaty of Brest Litovsk and the Russian Revolution in 1917. We read every letter, fax, or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate. By postal mail: Central Intelligence Agency Office of Public Affairs Washington, D.C. 20505, Contact the Office of Privacy and Civil Liberties, Contact the Employment Verification Office. Yet force alone cannot win the day. [28]Kenneth M. Pollack, “The Influence of Arab Culture on Arab Military Effective­ness,” (PhD Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Political Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996), 201. But it is only one factor. Intelligence at Inchon was not happenstance, like the discovery of Lee’s lost orders before Antietam, but a conscious and necessary task assigned by leadership; before MacArthur could determine how to employ his forces, he first had to know whether he could attack or not and where he could attack if it was possible. Without specific authorization, the vast majority of Egypt’s air force officers, from air sector commanders all the way down to pilots, were uwilling to take even the most obvious emergency procedures.”[36] Only eight MiGs got into the air to defend their airfields; every one was shot down. The Importance of Intelligence. AN INTERVIEW WITH JAMES CLAPPER. All statements of fact, opinion, or analysis expressed in this article are those of the author. The loss of her fleet carrier force deprived Japan of the initiative; henceforward she was on the defensive—attempting to hold the great spread of the Southern Resources Area and contiguous regions she had so handily won.… Two basic factors led to the result: first and foremost, the American knowledge of the Japanese secret codes, which presented Nimitz with an accurate picture of Japanese intentions and dispositions. It is essential for the United States to maintain superiority in those technologies of critical importance to our security. Its commander, General Irvin McDowell, was under pressure from Lincoln to strike the Confederates at the earliest possible date. Depending on what you provide, we may offer you compensation. While the United States would lose one carrier, it was left with five spread throughout the world. [9]FirstWorldWar.com, http://www.first­worldwar.com/battles/tannenberg.htm. [32] Stewart Steven, The Spymasters of Israel: The Definitive Look at the World’s Best Intelligence Service (New York: Bal­lantine Books, 1980), 229. This led to frequent lapses in security and resulted in operators repeatedly resending messages, often uncoded, in plain language. We reply first to messages of greater interest People from nearly every country share information with CIA, and new individuals contact us [23] Ibid., “Support to Planning—The Inchon Landing.”. [13] Were the Japanese to take Midway, they would threaten not only the Hawaiian Islands, but they could use Midway as a springboard for attacks on the continental United States. You can also mail a letter to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and request it be forwarded to CIA. What is the role of intelligence in a world where information is everywhere and the global security environment moves and evolves at breakneck speed? 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